Section 101: Definitions - Part II

 

Title 11 of the United States Code - Bankruptcy GENERAL PROVISIONS – CHAPTER 1

Definitions - Section 101

11 USCS § 101
PART II

....

   (33) The term "institution-affiliated party"--

      (A) with respect to an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 USCS § 1813(c)(2)]), has the meaning given it in section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 USCS § 1813(u)]; and

      (B) with respect to an insured credit union, has the meaning given it in section 206(r) of the Federal Credit Union Act [12 USCS § 1786(r)].

   (34) The term "insured credit union" has the meaning given it in section 101(7) of the Federal Credit Union Act [12 USCS § 1752(7)].

   (35) The term "insured depository institution"--

      (A) has the meaning given it in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 USCS § 1813(c)(2)]; and

      (B) includes an insured credit union (except in the case of paragraphs (23) and (35) of this subsection).

   (35A) The term "intellectual property" means--

      (A) trade secret;

      (B) invention, process, design, or plant protected under title 35 [35 USCS §§ 1 et seq.];

      (C) patent application;

      (D) plant variety;

      (E) work of authorship protected under title 17 [17 USCS §§ 101 et seq.]; or

      (F) mask work protected under chapter 9 of title 17 [17 USCS §§ 901 et seq.];

   to the extent protected by applicable nonbankruptcy law.

   (36) The term "judicial lien" means lien obtained by judgment, levy, sequestration, or other legal or equitable process or proceeding.

   (37) The term "lien" means charge against or interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation.

   (38) The term "margin payment" means, for purposes of the forward contract provisions of this title, payment or deposit of cash, a security or other property, that is commonly known in the forward contract trade as original margin, initial margin, maintenance margin, or variation margin, including mark-to-market payments, or variation payments.

   (38A) "master netting agreement"--

      (A) means an agreement providing for the exercise of rights, including rights of netting, setoff, liquidation, termination, acceleration, or close out, under or in connection with one or more contracts that are described in any one or more of paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 561(a) [11 USCS § 561(a)], or any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more of the foregoing, including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation related to 1 or more of the foregoing; and

      (B) if the agreement contains provisions relating to agreements or transactions that are not contracts described in paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 561(a) [11 USCS § 561(a)], shall be deemed to be a master netting agreement only with respect to those agreements or transactions that are described in any one or more of paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 561(a) [11 USCS § 561(a)].

   (38B) The term "master netting agreement participant" means an entity that, at any time before the date of the filing of the petition, is a party to an outstanding master netting agreement with the debtor.

   (39) The term "mask work" has the meaning given it in section 901(a)(2) of title 17 [17 USCS § 901(a)(2)].

   (39A) The term "median family income" means for any year--

      (A) the median family income both calculated and reported by the Bureau of the Census in the then most recent year; and

      (B) if not so calculated and reported in the then current year, adjusted annually after such most recent year until the next year in which median family income is both calculated and reported by the Bureau of the Census, to reflect the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers during the period of years occurring after such most recent year and before such current year.

   (40) The term "municipality" means political subdivision or public agency or instrumentality of a State.

   (40A) The term "patient" means any individual who obtains or receives services from a health care business.

   (40B) The term "patient records" means any written document relating to a patient or a record recorded in a magnetic, optical, or other form of electronic medium.

   (41) The term "person" includes individual, partnership, and corporation, but does not include governmental unit, except that a governmental unit that--

      (A) acquires an asset from a person--

         (i) as a result of the operation of a loan guarantee agreement; or

         (ii) as receiver or liquidating agent of a person;

      (B) is a guarantor of a pension benefit payable by or on behalf of the debtor or an affiliate of the debtor; or

      (C) is the legal or beneficial owner of an asset of--

         (i) an employee pension benefit plan that is a governmental plan, as defined in section 414(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS § 414(d)]; or

         (ii) an eligible deferred compensation plan, as defined in section 457(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS § 457(b)];

   shall be considered, for purposes of section 1102 of this title [11 USCS § 1102], to be a person with respect to such asset or such benefit.

   (41A) The term "personally identifiable information" means--

      (A) if provided by an individual to the debtor in connection with obtaining a product or a service from the debtor primarily for personal, family, or household purposes--

         (i) the first name (or initial) and last name of such individual, whether given at birth or time of adoption, or resulting from a lawful change of name;

         (ii) the geographical address of a physical place of residence of such individual;

         (iii) an electronic address (including an e-mail address) of such individual;

         (iv) a telephone number dedicated to contacting such individual at such physical place of residence;

         (v) a social security account number issued to such individual; or

         (vi) the account number of a credit card issued to such individual; or

      (B) if identified in connection with 1 or more of the items of information specified in subparagraph (A)--

         (i) a birth date, the number of a certificate of birth or adoption, or a place of birth; or

         (ii) any other information concerning an identified individual that, if disclosed, will result in contacting or identifying such individual physically or electronically.

   (42) The term "petition" means petition filed under section 301, 302, 303, or 304 of this title [11 USCS § 301, 302, 303], as the case may be, commencing a case under this title.

   (42A) The term "production payment" means a term overriding royalty satisfiable in cash or in kind--

      (A) contingent on the production of a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon from particular real property; and

      (B) from a specified volume, or a specified value, from the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon produced from such property, and determined without regard to production costs.

   (43) The term "purchaser" means transferee of a voluntary transfer, and includes immediate or immediate transferee of such a transferee.

   (44) The term "railroad" means common carrier by railroad engaged in the transportation of individuals or property or owner of trackage facilities leased by such a common carrier.

   (45) The term "relative" means individual related by affinity or consanguinity within the third degree as determined by the common law, or individual in a step or adoptive relationship within such third degree.

   (46) The term "repo participant" means an entity that, at any time before the filing of the petition, has an outstanding repurchase agreement with the debtor.

   (47) The term "repurchase agreement" (which definition also applies to a reverse repurchase agreement)--

      (A) means--

         (i) an agreement, including related terms, which provides for the transfer of one or more certificates of deposit, mortgage related securities (as defined in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 USCS § 78c]), mortgage loans, interests in mortgage related securities or mortgage loans, eligible bankers' acceptances, qualified foreign government securities (defined as a security that is a direct obligation of, or that is fully guaranteed by, the central government of a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), or securities that are direct obligations of, or that are fully guaranteed by, the United States or any agency of the United States against the transfer of funds by the transferee of such certificates of deposit, eligible bankers' acceptances, securities, mortgage loans, or interests, with a simultaneous agreement by such transferee to transfer to the transferor thereof certificates of deposit, eligible bankers' acceptance, securities, mortgage loans, or interests of the kind described in this clause, at a date certain not later than 1 year after such transfer or on demand, against the transfer of funds;

         (ii) any combination of agreements or transactions referred to in clauses (i) and (iii);

         (iii) an option to enter into an agreement or transaction referred to in clause (i) or (ii);

         (iv) a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in clause (i), (ii), or (iii), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether such master agreement provides for an agreement or transaction that is not a repurchase agreement under this paragraph, except that such master agreement shall be considered to be a repurchase agreement under this paragraph only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in clause (i), (ii), or (iii); or

         (v) any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreement or transaction referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv), including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation by or to a repo participant or financial participant in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in any such clause, but not to exceed the damages in connection with any such agreement or transaction, measured in accordance with section 562 of this title [11 USCS § 562]; and

      (B) does not include a repurchase obligation under a participation in a commercial mortgage loan.

   (48) The term "securities clearing agency" means person that is registered as a clearing agency under section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 USCS § 78q-1], or exempt from such registration under such section pursuant to an order of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or whose business is confined to the performance of functions of a clearing agency with respect to exempted securities, as defined in section 3(a)(12) of such Act [15 USCS § 78c(a)(12)] for the purposes of such section 17A [15 USCS § 78q-1].

   (48A) The term "securities self regulatory organization" means either a securities association registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under section 15A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 USCS § 78o-3] or a national securities exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 USCS § 78f].

   (49) The term "security"--

      (A) includes--

         (i) note;

         (ii) stock;

         (iii) treasury stock;

         (iv) bond;

         (v) debenture;

         (vi) collateral trust certificate;

         (vii) pre-organization certificate or subscription;

         (viii) transferable share;

         (ix) voting-trust certificate;

         (x) certificate of deposit;

         (xi) certificate of deposit for security;

         (xii) investment contract or certificate of interest or participation in a profit-sharing agreement or in an oil, gas, or mineral royalty or lease, if such contract or interest is required to be the subject of a registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 USCS §§ 77a et seq.], or is exempt under section 3(b) of such Act [15 USCS § 77c(b)] from the requirement to file such a statement;

         (xiii) interest of a limited partner in a limited partnership;

         (xiv) other claim or interest commonly known as "security"; and

         (xv) certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase or sell, a security; but

      (B) does not include--

         (i) currency, check, draft, bill of exchange, or bank letter of credit;

         (ii) leverage transaction, as defined in section 761 of this title [11 USCS § 761];

         (iii) commodity futures contract or forward contract;

         (iv) option, warrant, or right to subscribe to or purchase or sell a commodity futures contract;

         (v) option to purchase or sell a commodity;

         (vi) contract or certificate of a kind specified in subparagraph (A)(xii) of this paragraph that is not required to be the subject of a registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is not exempt under section 3(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 USCS § 77c(b)] from the requirement to file such a statement; or

         (vii) debt or evidence of indebtedness for goods sold and delivered or services rendered.

   (50) The term "security agreement" means agreement that creates or provides for a security interest.

   (51) The term "security interest" means lien created by an agreement.

   (51A) The term "settlement payment" means, for purposes of the forward contract provisions of this title, a preliminary settlement payment, a partial settlement payment, an interim settlement payment, a settlement payment on account, a final settlement payment, a net settlement payment, or any other similar payment commonly used in the forward contract trade.

   (51B) The term "single asset real estate" means real property constituting a single property or project, other than residential real property with fewer than 4 residential units, which generates substantially all of the gross income of a debtor who is not a family farmer and on which no substantial business is being conducted by a debtor other than the business of operating the real property and activities incidental.

   (51C) The term "small business case" means a case filed under chapter 11 of this title in which the debtor is a small business debtor.

   (51D) The term "small business debtor"--

      (A) subject to subparagraph (B), means a person engaged in commercial or business activities (including any affiliate of such person that is also a debtor under this title and excluding a person whose primary activity is the business of owning or operating real property or activities incidental thereto) that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts as of the date of the petition or the date of the order for relief in an amount not more than $ 2,190,000 (excluding debts owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders) for a case in which the United States trustee has not appointed under section 1102(a)(1) [11 USCS § 1102(a)(1)] a committee of unsecured creditors or where the court has determined that the committee of unsecured creditors is not sufficiently active and representative to provide effective oversight of the debtor; and

      (B) does not include any member of a group of affiliated debtors that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts in an amount greater than $ 2,190,000 (excluding debt owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders).

   (52) The term "State" includes the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, except for the purpose of defining who may be a debtor under chapter 9 of this title [11 USCS §§ 901 et seq.].

   (53) The term "statutory lien" means lien arising solely by force of a statute on specified circumstances or conditions, or lien of distress for rent, whether or not statutory, but does not include security interest or judicial lien, whether or not such interest or lien is provided by or is dependent on a statute and whether or not such interest or lien is made fully effective by statute.

   (53A) The term "stockbroker" means person--

      (A) with respect to which there is a customer, as defined in section 741 of this title [11 USCS § 741]; and

      (B) that is engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities--

         (i) for the account of others; or

         (ii) with members of the general public, from or for such person's own account.

   (53B) The term "swap agreement"--

      (A) means--

         (i) any agreement, including the terms and conditions incorporated by reference in such agreement, which is--

            (I) an interest rate swap, option, future, or forward agreement, including a rate floor, rate cap, rate collar, cross-currency rate swap, and basis swap;

            (II) a spot, same day-tomorrow, tomorrow-next, forward, or other foreign exchange, precious metals, or other commodity agreement;

            (III) a currency swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

            (IV) an equity index or equity swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

            (V) a debt index or debt swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

            (VI) a total return, credit spread or credit swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

            (VII) a commodity index or a commodity swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

            (VIII) a weather swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

            (IX) an emissions swap, option, future, or forward agreement; or

            (X) an inflation swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

         (ii) any agreement or transaction that is similar to any other agreement or transaction referred to in this paragraph and that--

            (I) is of a type that has been, is presently, or in the future becomes, the subject of recurrent dealings in the swap or other derivatives markets (including terms and conditions incorporated by reference therein); and

            (II) is a forward, swap, future, option, or spot transaction on one or more rates, currencies, commodities, equity securities, or other equity instruments, debt securities or other debt instruments, quantitative measures associated with an occurrence, extent of an occurrence, or contingency associated with a financial, commercial, or economic consequence, or economic or financial indices or measures of economic or financial risk or value;

         (iii) any combination of agreements or transactions referred to in this subparagraph;

         (iv) any option to enter into an agreement or transaction referred to in this subparagraph;

         (v) a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, and without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement or transaction that is not a swap agreement under this paragraph, except that the master agreement shall be considered to be a swap agreement under this paragraph only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv); or

         (vi) any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreements or transactions referred to in clause (i) through (v), including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation by or to a swap participant or financial participant in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in any such clause, but not to exceed the damages in connection with any such agreement or transaction, measured in accordance with section 562 [11 USCS § 562]; and

      (B) is applicable for purposes of this title only, and shall not be construed or applied so as to challenge or affect the characterization, definition, or treatment of any swap agreement under any other statute, regulation, or rule, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Legal Certainty for Bank Products Act of 2000 [7 USCS §§ 27 et seq.], the securities laws (as such term is defined in section 3(a)(47) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 USCS § 78c(a)(47)]) and the Commodity Exchange Act [7 USCS §§ 1 et seq.].

   (53C) The term "swap participant" means an entity that, at any time before the filing of the petition, has an outstanding swap agreement with the debtor.

   [(53C.1)] (56A) The term "term overriding royalty" means an interest in liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons in place or to be produced from particular real property that entitles the owner thereof to a share of production, or the value thereof, for a term limited by time, quantity, or value realized.

   (53D) The term "timeshare plan" means and shall include that interest purchased in any arrangement, plan, scheme, or similar device, but not including exchange programs, whether by membership, agreement, tenancy in common, sale, lease, deed, rental agreement, license, right to use agreement, or by any other means, whereby a purchaser, in exchange for consideration, receives a right to use accommodations, facilities, or recreational sites, whether improved or unimproved, for a specific period of time less than a full year during any given year, but not necessarily for consecutive years, and which extends for a period of more than three years. A "timeshare interest" is that interest purchased in a timeshare plan which grants the purchaser the right to use and occupy accommodations, facilities, or recreational sites, whether improved or unimproved, pursuant to a timeshare plan.

   (54) The term "transfer" means--

      (A) the creation of a lien;

      (B) the retention of title as a security interest;

      (C) the foreclosure of a debtor's equity of redemption; or

      (D) each mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with--

         (i) property; or

         (ii) an interest in property.

   (54A) The term "uninsured State member bank" means a State member bank (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 USCS § 1813]) the deposits of which are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

   (55) "United States", when used in a geographical sense, includes all locations where the judicial jurisdiction of the United States extends, including territories and possessions of the United States.



Further Understanding Through Case Law


Constitutionality of Bankruptcy

“But laws that regulate economic activity not involving constitutionally protected conduct are subject to a quite lenient test for constitutional sufficiency... The Bankruptcy Code is such a law.”

In re Kelly 841 F.2d 908 (1988) 

Fresh Start From Bankruptcy

“Federal bankruptcy law allows a debtor to exempt some of his property — mainly basic necessities — from the bankruptcy estate. The exemptions can afford the debtor some economic and social stability, which is important to the fresh start guaranteed by bankruptcy… the fresh start guaranteed by bankruptcy, and supported by the exemption scheme, does not entitle a debtor to maintain the lifestyle to which he was accustomed in better times.”

In re Moorehead 283 F.3d 199 (2004)

The Purpose of Bankruptcy Law

“Fundamental purpose of Bankruptcy Act of 1898 was to conserve properties for benefit of debtors and creditors alike or to reduce assets to cash for distribution among creditors.”

In re McGoldrick 121 F.2d 746 (1941)



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